A Nice Travel Guide to Budapest

Classical music is superb here too with some wonderful opera houses. Try visiting the Hungarian state opera house which has one of the best opera companies in Europe if you can get a ticket. Otherwise you can find out more about the history of Budapest music in the Music Museum. There is also the old fashioned Budapest Operetta Theatre.

Art lovers will also find much to enjoy in this city full of cultural splendour. There are the Trafó House of Contemporary Arts and the Palace of Arts among other attractive options. Holders of student cards get discounted entry to both of these fantastic buildings.

Interestingly Budapest is divided up into 23 districts which are marked by Roman numerals. Just under two million people live in Budapest, though there are more than three million inhabitants of Greater Budapest.

Since the break up of the Eastern bloc, Budapest has been recognised as something of a hidden gem. Now more than 20 million tourists go there every year to see what this beautiful city has to offer. Many of them are drawn to the fact that Budapest is a relatively cheap city, and combined with cheap car hire Budapest you can have an affordable and pleasurable holiday here.

When driving through Budapest remember that the River Danube splits the city into two parts – Buda (a city on the west bank) and Pest (a city on the east bank). If you need help orientating yourself you may also wish to have a sat nav system in your car, a good idea if you don’t speak Hungarian. Take some time to see the beautiful bridges which cross the Danube such as the Lágymányosi Bridge, the Margaret Bridge and the Árpád Bridge. All have a range of architectural styles.

The must-see areas of Budapest have been put onto the UNESCO World Heritage list and are the Buda Castle Quarter, the Banks of the River Danube, and Andrássy Avenue.

One of the more relaxing pastimes in Budapest is going bathing as this is an old spa city with baths left over from an era of Turkish occupation. People from all over Europe come to enjoy these hot springs and pampering services such as massages.

Budapest Airport, known as Budapest Ferihegy Airport, is the largest airport in the country. You will want to pick up a car at Budapest Ferihegy International Airport as it is located some 10 miles outside of the city centre. As Budapest is such a huge city you will certainly find having a car to be advantageous.

There are some short term car parks situated at both of the airport’s two terminals. There is also a long term car park with good security surveillance. For more parking information call (01) 296 5505. For general information call +36-1 296-9696, while +361 296-5449 is the number to call regarding lost luggage.

We have secured deals with the car rental companies Avis cars, Budget, Europcar rentals, Hertz, National car hire, Alamo and Sixt which all have desks outside of Arrivals levels in both Terminal 2A and Terminal 2B. From terminal 1 you can catch cheap flights with low cost airlines like Ryanair and Easyjet. Terminal 2 is where the Hungarian national carrier, Malev, is located. Terminal 2A and gates 20-30 serve all of the Schengen Area destinations while terminal 2B and gates 11-19 serve all of the Non-Schengen Area destinations. The Schengen allows participating countries to cross borders with a minimum of trouble.

The airport can be reached via route E60 and it is clearly signposted from Budapest. It is also possible to drive from the city centre along the Ferihegy High Speed Road in 20 minutes. The airport code for Budapest Airport is BUD. Car Hire Budapest Airport is the cheapest and safest way to see what the city has to offer. Especially as public transport in the city is not reliable, buses are not always clean and ticket prices seem to be continually increasing. You should however time your journeys to avoid the notorious traffic jams of Budapest.

The Sanctuary Lodge at Machu Picchu – Worth the Expense?

The trek to Machu Picchu, the most visited World Heritage Site and the top destination in Peru, is an experience that most international travelers have near the top of their bucket lists. Situated high in the Andes on a mountain ridge above the Urubamba River, Machu Picchu is reached only by foot via the Inca Trail, or by bus up a long series of switchbacks on a gravel/dirt road, winding up from the town of Aguas Calientes. Due to the distance and the bus and train schedules, one’s time at Machu Picchu is fairly short unless one stays at The Sanctuary Lodge. The lodge is the only overnight accommodation at Machu Picchu, its front door only steps away from Machu Picchu’s entrance gate. Before you say “it’s a no brainer, we’re staying” be aware that a room in the lodge will put a ding in your Peru travel budget. A one-night stay at The Sanctuary Lodge runs from a low of $795 US all the way up to $1320 US for a suite. The big question – “is it worth it?”

Location, location, location.

The thought of coming up with that kind of coin to stay in a country where the average income is $7600 annually (2007 estimate) somewhat boggles the mind. The cost seems extreme for Peru. Making the decision isn’t based on the normal questions about amenities, softness of beds, and quality of food. In this case, the one deciding factor is location. Sanctuary Lodge has it, and no one else does. Staying at the lodge buys you access to Machu Picchu before sunrise, before the crowds belch from the buses (although some buses do make the climb for the early 6:00 AM opening of the site) and, delightedly, after the crowds have left to catch the last bus that will connect to the afternoon’s departing train. By late afternoon, the only Machu Picchu visitors are Lodge occupants and day hikers from campgrounds. It’s the most solitude you’ll find at the site, which hosts an annual visitor rate of about 400,000 people a year.

Food and drink.

Occupancy at Sanctuary Lodge also buys access to a pleasant lunch in the Tampu restaurant/bar, where one can find lunch without crowds and lines after a long and early Machu Picchu morning watching the morning mists and the rising sun. Day-trippers up from Aguas Calientes must stand in long, snaking lines to eat at the Lodge’s Tinkuy restaurant (a buffet lunch is served) or in a small patio vendor’s area right outside the lodge. This wait takes precious time from your already-short day – but there is no food available inside Machu Picchu itself, and one isn’t supposed to bring food and drink into the site except water in canteens.

Amenities.

Paying for a location that increases your visiting time inside Machu Picchu is the key. The truth is, to maximize your visit here you’d probably sleep on a cot under the stars. Happily, Sanctuary Lodge is no stripped-down hotel – it’s a part of the Orient-Express hotel and train empire. The staff is all about exemplary service to the Lodge’s guests, the beds are the most comfortable we’ve ever slept on anywhere, and the food is five-star. Hotel guests also can enjoy an outside terrace and a walk through the Lodge’s orchid garden, built along a meandering stream and waterfall. Massages are available (although more expensive than anywhere else in Peru that I could find.)

The final decision.

In the end, we decided to book (well ahead of time, as the Lodge has only 29 rooms and 2 suites, 12 of which offer mountain views and are correspondingly higher in price). The ability to expand our time exploring one of the “new” Seven Wonders of the World to a day and a half versus only hours made the hit to our wallet worth it for us.

Tip: Don’t bother paying for a “view” room as it doesn’t allow a view inside the actual site nor are you in your room that much anyway.

Peru is an enchanting and amazing country, and Machu Picchu is, arguably, its crown jewel. My suggestion – spend the money for the Sanctuary Lodge and maximize your time. For most of us, visiting Machu Picchu is a once-in-a-lifetime gig.

Free Credit Report Online

A credit report is something that everyone should understand. They are the most important factor when it comes to applying for a loan, renting an apartment, getting a good credit card, and more. Your credit report and credit score show potential lenders your financial history, the good, the bad, and the ugly.

Almost all financial institutions, including banks and lending companies, use credit reports as their main means of deciding whether or not to give an applicant the loan to which they have applied. Potential customers who have a history of not paying bank loans on time are more likely to do it again, and there for are seen by lenders as undesirable. The better your credit score and report are, the more you will potentially be able to borrow, at a lower interest rate as well.

In the past, the only means of obtaining a credit report was through special credit tracking agencies, and could take days to prepare. Now, with advances in modern technology, anyone can request an instant credit check at absolutely no cost. The US Federal Trade Commission requires that the three major national credit reporting companies (Equifax, Experian, and TransUnion) provide a totally free copy of your credit report to you, if requested, up to once every 12 months.

There are dozens of sites on the internet that will help guide you through the process of requesting a free online credit check. They can also assist you in improving your credit score, should you find it to be lower than you would like it to be. You can also see a record of all the companies that have previously conducted a credit check on you!

One of the major benefits of performing a free credit report check is to check for identity theft, fraud, errors, and out of date information. A great deal of people fall victim to identity theft and fraud with out being aware of it. Your credit score can be greatly effected by fraudulent activity, greatly reducing your chance of receiving loans and credit cards. By frequently checking your credit report, you can discover these mistakes and have them corrected before they harm your credit score. You can also check for errors which may have been caused by the credit reporting agency itself.

How Do I Get a Free Online Credit Check?

Titanium Watch

Titanium due to its light weight and ease of maintenance is popularly used in the manufacture of watches all over the world. A Titanium watch, with exquisite design and sturdy mechanism can captivate the onlookers at the first sight. Titanium watches are presently the trendy fashion statement for those who have fascination for watches. These light-weighed watches are the hot favorites among those who enjoy the pristine possessions in life.

As much the same way as different types of materials have different thermal sensations, metals also have their particular standing temperatures. Once these metals are touched with bare hands, the skin responds to the surface temperature of these metals. The metals which have much cooler surface temperatures in normal room temperatures quickly take the heat from the warmth of the skin and thus the thermal receptors transmit the signal of sensation to the brain thereby giving the feel that the metal is cooler than other materials. It is due to this swift change in the body temperature in contact with the metal, which actually dictates the thermal soothe.

There may be different types of metal that conduct heat effectively at varying degrees such as stainless steel, gold and aluminum, conducting more quicker than titanium. This sudden thermal conduction causes a noticeable sensation of cold when the metal comes in contact with the skin. At very warm temperatures, as in the hot summer months, the metal quickly gets heated up due to extreme hot temperature and thus increases the surface temperature of the metal that has been used in the manufacture of watches. The increase in temperature of the metal casing of the watch may cause the wearer to feel really uncomfortable. Likewise, that spoon dipped inside a saucepan with boiling water will quickly absorb the heat, so will the metals used in watch making when it comes in contact with extremely warm environment.

This makes good reason to use Titanium in the manufacture of watches as wearers will not actually experience rapid heat transfer, for the very fact that this metal is poor heat conductor unlike other metals. Titanium watches make the wearer feel comfortable even at environments with extreme temperatures. A Titanium watch will not let the wearer feel sudden heat or extreme cold in correspondence to outside temperature.

Wearing a sophisticated Titanium watch will make the wearer a center stage of attraction for the people around. The stylish watches portray high level of mechanism encased into sleek and trendy casing.

Titanium watches are very light weight and highly durable. A Titanium watch with scratch resistant and dent resistant casing is extremely resistive to corrosion. These watches look great and can be good gift idea for someone special or those who often travel into situations where there is risk of damage and scratches. Due to its high durability titanium watches are widely popular among sportspersons, trekkers and those who enjoy being adventurous. For the buyers there are huge selection of exclusive designs, uniquely crafted to suit individual taste and personality. A Titanium watch can even be worn as military watches, as well as a casual watch. There are various popular watch manufacturing brands that have their great selection of eye-catching titanium wrist watches. Individuals can select their favorite design from the huge designer watches that fit their style and requirement.

Legitimate Online Jobs – Do They Exist?

Many people may have heard of online jobs but are just too skeptical to believe that you can actually work and earn even by staying at home. Many think that Internet jobs are just scams and will just make you work for unworthy payment. This is totally wrong. There are lots of online opportunities that you can have that are legitimate and high paying. These jobs will not be as popular as they are today if they are not worthy of your time and effort.

Many people take advantage of these online jobs because they are more convenient as compared to a regular job. You do not have to travel to get to your work place. There are no dress codes or schedules to follow. And you can learn a lot of skills from the different Internet jobs that you can have. In fact, there are lots of web jobs that provide you with multiple income if your time permits you explore these opportunities. If you are just staying at home, you can have 4 or 5 jobs a day. This means that you can have more profits.

There are lots of websites that offer online jobs. In some cases, you simply have to register and take some tests. You can also apply for jobs that you consider an easy task to complete and ones that you can do efficiently. Remember that you do not have to pay anything like membership fees just to get a job. Try and stay away from sites that ask you for a small fee just to get a job, or in order for them to pay you a certain amount of money. Keep in mind that you do not have to pay for a job just to get it. If you are qualified and skilled, then there is job for you out there.

Another thing to remember is to check on the payments of the jobs being offered. If they are extremely high for the job, then you might have come across a scam site. Make sure that the payment is just right for the job you are taking. A company will not spend all its money for a simple job. Choose realistic offers to be sure that it is legitimate.

Do not worry about illegitimate online jobs. There are just a few of them. There are still more sites that offer legitimate online jobs and are willing to help people who would like to earn more for their families. So if you have a computer and internet connection, take advantage of it and take the chance to find an online job. It is best to be working from the comfort of your own home at your preferred time and pace. Working at home eliminates a lot of hassles that you would encounter with an offline job. You can also work more relaxed and comfortable through these online jobs. Aside from this, the salary and benefits can be extremely rewarding. Some online jobs even pay higher than a regular job. And if you have lots of time to take several online jobs, then you can be earning big time. Just be keen and check if a certain site is truly legitimate to make sure that you will not be tricked by online frauds.

WoW Tips For Gold – The Limiteds

One of the ways to make massive WoW gold is through the buying and selling of various items. Some of these items are limited in availability, others are only available in one place, and some are both.

For example, the book that teaches you how to take your First Aid skill beyond 150 is available in only a couple of places. For the Alliance it’s Deneb Walker in Stromgarde Keep, in the Arathi Highlands.

While most of the vendor items in the World of Warcraft are available in unlimited quantities, such as that book, the limited items might only have one item available. An example is in the Crossroads, in the Barrens. The weapons vendor there sells the Feral Blade, but only one or two at a time.

All of the vendors selling limited items will replenish their stock from time to time, but that time may vary from a few minutes, to hours, to months in the case of a certain vendor in Moonglade who sells a certain dress (this is a vanity item, it has no combat value.) The dress only appears once every couple of months.

Many, if not most, of these limited items are hard to get items, like the First Aid book, will sell for much more on the Auction House than it costs to buy them from the vendor. Sometimes a whole lot more. Do you see some possibilities here?

There are a couple of groups of players who are your target market:. The one group probably doesn’t know where to find the item (and doesn’t necessarily care,) such as that book, so will buy it off the Auction House. Even though they could save two or four gold by buying it from the vendor.

The next group feels their time is worth more than a few gold, so they buy items off the Auction House instead of spending the time to go wherever to get an item. These people might decide to powerlevel their First Aid skill, so they buy a few large piles of cloth and buy the books off the Auction House. They save hours by not having to travel to buy and/or farm the necessary items.

Then they go to the trainer and raise their skill by 200 points in one sitting. They don’t want to waste their time going here and going there to get their book(s) so they blow a few more gold and get it all done now.

The same is true for any other limited item. There’s the group that knows it’s available from a vendor, but doesn’t want to spend the time camping that vendor hoping that the item appears. So they buy off the AH. The other group doesn’t know about the vendors, but might not care anyway.

Now your job is this – every time you pass by any vendor in the game you’re going to check their inventory for limited items. You’ll want to check those vendors several times just in case you missed the item the first time around. Also, you’re going to check for items that only appear at that vendor, such as the First Aid book. Then check the Auction House and learn what these items sell for and what the competition might be. You’ll be pleasantly surprised in many cases.

Make notes of the profitable items as you find them and build up your own list of these items, then you can make the rounds from time to time and gather up your stock to sell.

The first time you buy something for 40 silver and sell it for 10 gold you’ll be convinced. For example, the dress mentioned above has been known to sell for ten times its buy price of 50 gold. Think a 450 gold profit would help your cash flow?

Hire Reliable Transportation Companies for Airport Pick-Up and Drop-Off

A long flight can be overly tiring and exhausting. You need something very relaxing to unwind from the exhaustions experienced due to long air journeys. A limousine ride can be the most luxurious experience that cannot be matched with anything else. There are various reputed transportation companies offering limo services for comfort and highly luxurious airport transportation. Owing to the presence of a number of companies offering limo services, it can sometimes be a difficult decision to choose the right one.

Let us discuss some of the factors you need to consider while choosing the most appropriate limo service that would provide you the most comfortable and on time airport pick up and drop off:

Safety: Though the main aspect that most people pay attention to while hiring a limo service is the level of luxury it can provide, it is nevertheless important to remember that there is nothing more vital than your safety. While choosing a limo service, it is necessary to check all safety factors to ensure that you can enjoy a smooth and hassle-free ride. Some of the essential safety factors include:

  • The company you are going to work with is appropriately insured.
  • The chauffeurs they employ are licensed and adequately trained.
  • The limousines they provide are in great working condition and do not involve any risks of breaking down in the middle of the journey.
  • The terms and policies followed by the limo service should be as per industry standards.

Efficiency: Efficiency and professionalism are equally important as safety. You should never hire a limo service that does not exhibit appropriate levels of efficiency. Most reputed services would provide you with highly trained and expert chauffeurs, who use high-tech software to keep track of the flight timings in order to provide you the most on time pick and drop facility from the airport. They should be courteous, well-mannered and capable of taking good care of all your goods and luggage.

Conveniences: Different transportation companies follow their own unique work methods and policies. No two limo companies would provide the same kind of services to their customers. Hence, rather than making comparisons between the various services and trying to find out which one is better, it is more convenient to find the one that can more efficiently cater to your requirements and conveniences. Hence, it is not always important to hire the best service in the market, but the one that is best suited to your preferences and travel requirements. To ensure that they meet all your travel needs, ask them thorough questions regarding the services they provide and do not provide. They should also provide you detailed and clear information regarding their prices they charge.

Flexibility: The limo service you hire should not have any problem adjusting to any possible changes in the flight timings. Just because you have hired them for a particular time, they should not object providing you service for a different time in case your flight timing gets delayed or arrives before time. Hence, flexibility is another important factor that has to be considered while hiring a transport service.

Dells Attractions – Why Tourists Are Lured In Visiting Dells

Wisconsin Dells is found a few miles north of Baraboo and centered on the ravine carved by the Wisconsin River, it is considered to be the primary place in the state’s widely recognized holiday region. Many theme parks, cruises on the river, hiking and horseback riding are one of the many points of interest that pull an increase of tourists every year to go to Wisconsin Dells.

As winter is by now on our doorstep therefore you might be thinking where to spend a good time this winter season. Winter in Wisconsin Dells boasts lots of family adventure – from snowboarding to snow tubing to winter zip line tours to ice fishing, skiing, downhill and cross country that you’ll definitely enjoy on your winter break.

You will find plenty of great ways to experience the Dells and among the best ways is to do it by water. The Dell’s boat tours have a variety of tours that will take you to the panoramic areas of Wisconsin Dells. In case you have this level of adventure in you, you could take boat tours through the rapids.

Water theme parks like the Mt. Olympus features roller coasters, water slides, along with other attractions that will give you and your loved ones a great time regardless of what the season is.

If you wish to enjoy an immaculate feasts for you and your family this Christmas season and New Year’s, Wisconsin Dells resorts and restaurants are the most desirable places to pay a visit to. Your palate will likely be enticed by flavorful turkey, ham, sweet potatoes, apple and pumpkin pie and other tasty dishes like baked halibut and Prosciutto chicken.

Apart from dining and having fun with resort activities you can surely enjoy non-stop holiday shopping at the Tanger Outlet Mall and get unique presents for your dad and mom. However if you desire to make them more happy, you can treat everyone with an all inclusive vacation.

Great news for those travelers who are preparing to head to the Dells! On December 9, the Holiday train is stopping downtown Wisconsin Dells at the Amtrak Station. Thinking about what’s there? Plenty! There will be activities, live entertainment, drinks, and photos with Santa Clause as well as huge raffle and Green Bay Packers tickets being the grand prize.

There are many things to do in the Dells to make your winter vacation a special one. Hotels and resorts provide you with excellent holiday packages and special rates. Virtually any visitor can for sure choose from a wide selection of lodging that fits his necessities and spending plan.

Winter season needs to be enjoyed with family and friends, so what are you waiting for? Plan your best winter escape today!

Computer Programming and Robotics Camps for Kids

Is your teenager the kind who loves tinkering with gadgets, trying to figure what makes them tick? Is he/she a whiz at math and science and dreams of becoming an engineer or scientist? It’s time to think enrolling in a about robotics camp and/or programming camp.

What will computer science camps teach my child?

Robotics camps are all about designing, building and programming robots, and testing them through a series of design challenges. Your child learns about technical stuff such as locomotion, gear ratios and energy during the process of robot construction.

Highly qualified counselors guide your child through problem-solving, research and basic – advanced engineering concepts. Campers are introduced to the latest concepts in computing technologies and engineering design through web programming, Alice programming, component-based robot construction and robotics programming.

Most computer science camps assign a full blown project to individual campers, which they get to take home. The robots designed and built by campers are demonstrated in a competition held at the end of the camp.

Why are computer science camps good for my child?

These are highly popular summer programs, designed to capture and harness your child’s curiosity and give it a definite direction. Your child gets answers to most of his questions and discovers the possibilities of the scientific world. Robotics and programming courses are ideal for teenagers who wish to master mechanical and programming concepts.

Your child experiences the magic and excitement of robotics camps through collaborative team sessions along with like-minded peers. Budding engineers and scientists learn to think critically about the world around them and to work collaboratively with others.

Will my child enjoy robotics camp?

Most kids enjoy the experience. However, a basic interest in science, math, computer programming and problem-solving always comes in handy. Most computer science camps are designed for students entering grades 7 to 9.

While prior experience in robotics or programming is not necessary, students attending programming courses need to be computer literate and have a passion for scientific knowledge. Students without a background in robotics and programming are generally separated from those who have already been introduced to it.

The robotics competition that is usually held on the last day of camp also has different leagues for students, depending on their skill levels.

Computer science camp is where engineering and creativity come together in the minds of young learners. Let your child experience the wonder this summer.

Your Guide to Multiple Reading Practices in Literature

It’s the most fundamental concept in dealing with any study of Literature or any art form for that matter, the concept of multiple reading practices is basically a taxonomy of the different methods with which you can obtain meaning from a text. Your natural reaction to anything in life is generally a judgment, a natural human urge to make sense of your surroundings…similarly when applied to a reader’s reaction to literature you can utilize different established approaches to making sense of texts.

Dominant Reading:

A Dominant Reading usually provides a reading of the text reflecting a broad consensus on what a text may mean, such a reading usually places a great deal of emphasis on how the reader believes the author has positioned them to respond. The reader usually reads the text in an ‘author friendly’ manner, although I’ve always been mystified as to how the reader determines what the intended meaning of a text was, on the part of an author, nevertheless this concept of a dominant reading persists as a type of reading which supposedly involves the reader traveling along the trajectory the author has designed to produce the meaning that the author intended. It is my personal opinion, that it is simply the ‘mainstream’ interpretation of a text which gains the de facto legitimacy of ‘author approved’ by sheer weight of numbers.

Alternative Reading

An Alternative Reading produces as the name might suggest, a meaning that is different from a dominant reading but nevertheless recognizes the purpose of the author in a text and does not ‘go against the grain’ of the text. The distinction between an Alternative Reading and a Resistant Reading, would probably be that an Alternative Reading is still heavily reliant on the text while a Resistant Reading implicitly requires to a greater extent ideological or contextual baggage which the reader uses to challenge the premise of a text.

Resistant Reading

A Resistant Reading ‘goes against the grain of the text’ and usually involves the reader being less reliant on the text and usually involves a much greater contextual influence; in terms of ideology, race, class or gender.

Feminist Reading

A Feminist reading foregrounds the representations of women: by that I mean the way key female characters are characterised and the values they hold, and the way the reader is positioned to respond to them.

Judith Fetterly author of ‘The Resisting Reader’ a seminal work in the area of Feminist and other recent developments in alternative readings, summarized the purpose of a feminist reading as “Feminist criticism is a political act whose aim is not simply to interpret the world but to change it by changing the consciousness of those who read and their relation to what they read.”

The underlying assumption of any Feminist Reading is an awareness or ‘consciousness’ on the part of the reader of a patriarchal hegemony reinforcing an oppressive set of roles and expectations for women, and literature as part of a dominant discourse for much of human history which has supported this oppression. Thus the reader usually identifies, in a feminist reading, whether the text is part of this cultural construct of oppressive gender roles or is seeking to subvert this patriarchal discourse.

The Danger in Feminist Readings

The danger in constructing a feminist reading is not accounting for the political distinctions and movement of feminism as an ideology. First off, feminism is hardly an ideology, you can’t construct a ‘feminist’ reading because no one knows what ‘feminism’ really means. This is because of the distinct political backgrounds and social agenda that ‘First Wave Feminism’, ‘Second Wave Feminism’ and ‘Third Wave Feminism’ entail.

Secondly feminist readings can not and should not be confined to superficial readings of a character’s values or rather how a character’s values is constructed by a text, and whether this constitutes ‘a liberal’ or ‘parochial’ attitude towards the role of women.

Feminist criticism is closely associated with Freudian psycho analysis, this can be seen in the feminist study of Frankenstein by Anne K Mellor which focused on the psycho-sexual developments in the text, the phallocentric discourse and motifs. This study found great and complex meaning in the positioning of images in the text and their sexual connotations, clearly feminist readings must account for more than characterization and plot. In fact a feminist reading, must, analyse the subconscious of the text in the way images are constructed, positioned and the order in which they occur; thereby providing a more definitive and profound implication for the politics of feminism.

It is politics that feminist theory centres around, not party politics, but the broader study of the exercise of power. This means a text can not be isolated from its political period, and the reading itself must find a political implication about the system that enforces a particular gender relationship.

Post-Colonial Reading

This reading practice focuses on representations of race particularly the relationship between colonisers and the colonised, Post-Colonial literature is a broad body of work often with the shared theme of ‘writing from the margins’ or providing a voice for the voiceless. Often Post Colonial readings will focus on impact of colonisation and colonial or imperial ideologies that underpin colonisation. Post Colonial readings may identify in texts constructs of ‘the other’, perhaps symbolised by a marginalised character or setting.

Post Colonial readings are linked very strongly with Marxist theory, best seen in the recurring use in post colonial discourse of the term ‘subaltern’ pioneered by Italian Marxist Antonio Gramsci. The term was adopted by the pioneer of the ‘subaltern studies group’ Ranajit Guha, a prominent Post Colonial scholar of Indian origin. This term encapsulates the current concerns of Post Colonial scholars, Ranajit Guha and his school have examined the way Post Colonial power structures such as the Indian State after the British granted independence in 1947, still relies on the same ideas and political space, as the British Raj. This has led to the central concern of Post Colonial scholars with history, as the story of the victors, and their political intent to amend history this time accounting for the voices of the oppressed and marginalised. So Post Colonial readings share a Marxist concern with oppression and the voice of the marginalised.

However Post Colonial readings are more concerned with language as a means of reinforcing and perpetrating the colonial ideology and intent. Rushdie suggests the Post Colonial author seeks to ‘conquer’ the language that oppressed their people.

Problems facing a post colonial reading is best explored in Gayatri Spivak Charkravorty’s landmark essay ‘Can the Subaltern Speak’ where she explores the role of the Post Colonial reader and his or her authority to articulate the voice of the subaltern. She concludes, the subaltern can not be translated by anyone other than the subaltern, therefore post colonial readings are limited in unearthing real representations of the ‘subaltern’ or other.

Marxist Reading

Marxist Readings emphasize this connection between ‘Base’ and ‘Superstructure; Base refers to the economic system of a society which Marx suggested was best reflected in the relations between employers and labour and superstructure which refers to social institutions and literature in particular. Thus Marxist theory identifies Literature as part of this societal superstructure; suggesting literature is influenced by, and in turn influences the economic ‘base’ of a society. This is the crux of a Marxist Reading identifying the influence of economic and political system on a text and vice versa.

This is achieved through focusing in on representations of the working class or proletariat, and representations of the bourgeoisie or middle class/employers and the interaction between them in a text. Another important aspect is class consciousness, to what degree does a text promote awareness of class? To what extent does identity depend on class? And to what degree does the text suggest justice or injustice within a particular economic system? Does the text promote change to these relationships and constructs (revolution)? i.e revolution consciousness

Psycho-Analytic Reading

A highly complex reading strategy, which I confess, I have only a very elementary understanding of…The bare mention of Freud and Lacan is enough to confuse me… I suppose Freud’s reading of the Greek myth Oedipus is probably a demonstration of the cross purposes of Psycho-Analytic Readings and Psycho-analysis, where Freud’s reading of Oedipus influences his Oedipal theory on the development of the child etc…Thus to psychoanalysts their reading practice was not only a means of literary interpretation but a means of postulating their theories

Psycho-Analytic Readings focus on symbolism in particular within a text and usually analyses the author or a particular character to some depth. The basic fundamentals of this reading practice is this idea of the text as a dream, and the purpose of this reading practice to elicit the real meaning from this dream by following an analytical process placing importance on symbols, language and characterization.

Personal Reading

Probably the most entertaining approach is to have a crack at your own interpretation of a text perhaps synthesizing some of the approaches above, but this method usually places the greatest emphasis on personal context, on the way the reader relates to a text and is influenced by his or her own context in the way he or she responds.

Contextual/New Historicist Reading

The emphasis is on placing a text in its historical context and its place in a broader literary movement, as well as the author’s own context; this approach reinforces the influence a society has on an author, and the importance of understanding the context of reception of a text, as a tool to making meaning. This reading practice focuses on the biases of the author, suggesting the importance of understanding an author’s psychology and influences. Another important aspect is recognising the critic’s bias, and stating the readers’ own context and how it influences their reading.

This practice is concerned not only with the text but more with the surroundings both of the authorship and reception of the text.

New Criticism

If you have a ‘close reading’ section in your English literature examination, or a section where you have to critically analyse an unseen text…You have the new critics to blame!

Reacting against the practices of New Historicism which emphasized the text’s linguistic, historical, political and social context and place instead of the actual text itself. In academic circles of the time it was considered the role of commercial critics to do textual analysis, and the role of the academics was to place the text within the literary canon in terms of politics. New Criticism rejected this emphasis with things outside the text.

New Criticism was profound in terms of reinvigorating the way we look at a text. In 1954 Beardsley and Wimsatt’s essay ‘The Intentional Fallacy’ suggested that it was wrong for readers to understand a text in terms of an authors political or social context or purported intent. Intentional fallacy saw the end of readings that tried to ‘fit’ texts into what we knew about the author for example often readings of George Bernard Shaw’s works succumb to poor analysis of an individual text and instead go for the easier ‘socialist’ reading clasping firmly Shaw’s affiliation with the Fabian society. To a new critic, this was unacceptable, a text should be analysed on its own, it had ‘autonomy of meaning’.

Other new concepts they pioneered included, heresy of paraphrase, the idea you could not arbitrarily ‘quote’ from a text, as the quote only has a meaning as an organic part of the whole text, it has no significance outside that frame. Another of their concepts was ‘affective fallacy’, in other words confusing what a text makes you ‘feel’ with what it means. They were concerned with paradox, irony and complexity in a text that could be reconciled into one superior, coherent reading. They believed in light of this poetry was the most beautiful and worthy form of literature.